I really like seeing the resurgence of interest in my second most favorite programming language
One of the comments to the referenced Gartner Group blog post had a link to an IBM Developer Works article about using using Eclipse as a Smalltalk IDE.
It seems like a strange loop, since Eclipse is the descendant of IBMs old VisualAge. Now I happen to know a bit about this since I was involved at the beginning. I guess that enough time has passed that nothing I say here will affect anyone’s business.
IBM, Smalltalk, and VisualAge
VisualAge started out as a demonstration prototype I wrote using Digitalk Smalltalk/V. The idea was to make something like the NeXT interface builder in Smalltalk as an adjunct to the Smalltalk IDE. For those who are not hip to such things, the Interface Builder, originally a Lisp program before Steve Jobs hired the author, lives on as part of Apple’s XCode tool suite for OS/X for the Mac and the iPhone.
The demo got some key IBM executives excited, and so the VisualAge development organization was born. Development proceeded using Smalltalk/V, along with Object Technology International’s (OTI) Envy/Developer, which was the state of the art version and configuration management for Smalltalk team programming.
As the project progressed, IBM and Digitalk had a falling out over conflicting views of who should be doing what. I’d shown the prototype to them in my position as liaison between the two companies, and they launched their Look and Feel kit which was seen by IBM management as competition from a supplier. So since we already had a relationship with OTI because of Envy/Developer, and OTI was in the business of building Smalltalk VMs, including the VM used by Digitalk’s Smalltalk/V for the Macintosh, IBM switched horses and contracted OTI to build “IBM” Smalltalk. This eventually led to the acquisition of OTI by IBM Canada.
This was about the time we founded the ANSI X3J20 committee to forge a standard across the existing and emerging Smalltalk implementations. I served as the secretary of X3J20. Some of the other members included Peter Deutsch and Glenn Krasner of ParcPlace, which Xerox had spun-off from their Palo Alto Research Center to commercialize Smalltalk-80; George Bosworth of Digitalk; Allen Wirfs-Brock of Instantiations one of the more successful Smalltalk consulting companies in the Portland Oregon suburbs; David Simmons who was the brains behind the iconoclastic Smalltalk/Agents; and Bruce Schuchardt who worked for Servio-Logic or Gemstone, I can’t recall which name they were going under at the time. I’m sure that I’m forgetting some of the players, but I’ll plead senility.
One of the great joys of working in Smalltalk during it’s first “glory days” was the opportunity to work with and exchange ideas with such brilliant people in IBM, OTI, and other companies.
VisualAge grew to become an entire family of development environments for several of the IBM “SAA” programming languages. There was even a VisualAge for Cobol! All of the various flavors featured an IDE written in IBM Smalltalk.
When Java “reared it’s head.” IBM, of course came out with VisualAge for Java. Again, the IDE was written in Smalltalk, although, in order to accomodate Java execution, OTI developed what was called the UVM (or Universal Virtual Machine) whcih could execute both Smalltalk and Java byte-codes, and used Smalltalk to implement the Java primitive functions which were implemented in C in the Sun JVM.
IBM eventually switched its focus from Smalltalk to Java. After considerable thought about this, and conversations with those who were in a position to know, I’m now convinced that this had nothing to do with the relative technical merits, and everything to do with a combined IBM/Sun platform play against Microsoft.
VisualAge for Java did eventually move away from the UVM for Java execution, primarily because the Java language had evolved to provide a standard C api for extensions. OTI began implementation of a new JVM, which was dubbed J9, which was built from the ground up to be usable in embedded systems.
OTI had a reputation of fostering the use of Smalltalk in embedded systems. When I first became aware of them in the early OOPSLA days, they were showing off products like an HP Network Analyser, and a TekTronix Digital Oscilloscope which used Smalltalk to implement their user interfaces. They were also involved with a large semiconductor company in Texas which was planning to use Smalltalk in controllers in an automated IC fabrication facility.
Around the time of the birth of J9, IBM was becoming quite interested in embedded software, under an initiative called Pervasive Computing (PVC). Because of this, OTI now an IBM Subsidiary, started working on VisualAge Micro Edition, which bundled J9 with an cross-platform IDE written, this time, in Java. About this time, I moved from IBM to OTI, and ended up working on the VAME IDE.
The Emergence of Eclipse
Work on VAME was distributed between various OTI labs. The lab in Phoenix acted as the liaison with the IBM PVC folks, the J9 VM work was done in Ottawa, Raleigh did some applications work, and some UI work, but the bulk of the VAME UI framework was done by Erich Gamma’s team at OTI Zurich. The IDE used Swing, as most Java desktop apps did in those days, and apparently that was a bit of a struggle. OTI used to have an annual all-hands internal developer conference in sunny early February Quebec, and I’ll never forget Erich, who is quite the Alpine skier, talking about the UI while showing a slide he took at some ski report showing a sign with a precariously oscillating chair-lift and a skier about to fall, with the text “Don’t Swing!”
And the overall IDE/UI framework which replaced VAME was, of course Eclipse.
And now it seems we’ve gone from a Smalltalk IDE hosting Java development to the reverse!
Where Are They Now
Digitalk eventually merged with ParcPlace to form ParcPlace-Digitalk. For a while, both Smalltalk/V and VisualWorks/Objectworks (the ParcPlace Smalltalk-80 products) were carried, but eventually VisualWorks survived. It’s now shepherded by Cincom, which bought the rights.
Similarly, IBM eventually sold the rights to market and develop VisualAge Smalltalk (a.k.a. VAST) to Instantiations. My old friend and colleague from IBM John O’Keefe “retired” from IBM to lead the development team.
And, of interest to the Ruby community, Gemstone is now working on Maglev, a Ruby implementation with persistent objects based on their mature Smalltalk product.
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